Bowed instrument from the same family as the ancient robab, we can consider it the ancestor of the violin, it appears on Persian miniatures and frescos of palaces in Isfahan. Its sound box is covered with skin and has four strings tuned sometimes like the western violin, but 12 different ways of tuning are also practiced.
A long necked lute type instrument related to the ancient tanbur whose origin dates back to three tousands years B.C. It has four strings and a small half pear shaped sound box. it is played with the strumming action of the right index finger nail which allows a great virtuosity. The setar has moveable frets and a range of two and a half octaves.
It was introduced into Persian music in the 19th century. Its tuning and technical aspects differ from the western classical violin and give it another timbre. The fretless fingerboard of the violin
makes possible all the melodic subtlety and micro intervals
of this music.